Post Cycle Therapy (PCT)
NATURAL POST CYCLE THERAPY (PCT)
Natural Post Cycle Therapy (PCT) is used to help restore the body’s natural balance after a cycle of anabolic supplement use. When a bodybuilder is cycling off anabolic supplements certain systems are out of balance and many people are looking for a natural supplement option. Once the supplement cycle has ended the body needs help to restore it to balance. Natural Post Cycle Therapy supplements are essential after an anabolic supplement cycle; it helps to restart the body’s natural function and contains antioxidant that enhance liver support. Provided in easy to swallow capsules.
Why Post Cycle Therapy (PCT):
- Popular among bodybuilders
- Help Maintain muscle mass
- Supports body’s natural balance
- Serving Size: 2 Capsules
- Capsules Per Container: 90
- Bottle Color: White
- Lid Color: Black
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a biologically active plant phytohormone that is obtained from dietary consumption of cruciferous vegetables, and it shows remarkable promise as an agent for the prevention and amelioration of estrogen imbalance and estrogen-driven malignancies.
The primary biological functions of I3C relate to its phenomenal antioxidant and anti-estrogen capacity. Ongoing research is focused on the following benefits:
- Decreasing estrogen signaling in vitro and in vivo –
- Selectively killing prostate cancer cells , 
- Promotes cellular antioxidant functions , 
Selected clinical research findings
- Indole-3-carbinol reduces estrogens in men :
The oxidative metabolism of estrogens in humans is mediated primarily by cytochrome P450, many isoenzymes of which are inducible by dietary and pharmacologic agents. One major pathway, 2-hydroxylation, is induced by dietary indole-3-carbinol (I3C), which is present in cruciferous vegetables (e.g., cabbage and broccoli). A profile of 13 estrogens was measured in each sample by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: The urinary concentrations of nearly all estrogen metabolites, including levels of estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 16α-hydroxyestrone, were lower after I3C treatment. These findings support the hypothesis that I3C-induced estrogen 2-hydroxylation results in decreased concentrations of several metabolites known to activate the estrogen receptor.
Adapted from : J. J. Michnovicz, H. Adlercreutz, and H. L. Bradlow, “Changes in Levels of Urinary Estrogen Metabolites After Oral Indole-3-Carbinol Treatment in Humans,” JNCI J. Natl. Cancer Inst., vol. 89, no. 10, pp. 718–723, May 1997.
Study Conclusion: Nearly all measured estrogens, including the crucial 16-oxygenated metabolites, were decreased in concentration following I3C treatment.
- Indole-3-carbinol derived CTet inhibits aromatization of testosterone :
Natural products such as aromatase inhibitors have been the object of growing attention in recent years because of their potential to inhibit aromatase with fewer side effects and the possible translation of their current use as chemotherapeutic agents to future clinical applications in breast cancer chemoprevention. We have previously investigated CTet, a novel anticancer agent obtained from the broccoli-derived compound indole-3-carbinol (I3C) that shows great anticancer potential in both in vitro and in vivo studies. The testosterone (TE) aromatization in estradiol (E2) was indirectly evaluated in terms of inhibition of TE-induced cell proliferation. Our results showed that CTet inhibited TE-driven Estrogen Receptor activation, suggesting an inhibitory effect of TE aromatization. A cell-free enzymatic assay showed that CTet did not inhibit aromatase activity directly; however, since CTet treatment induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, the TE aromatization could be affected because the aromatase enzyme is located within the endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, CTet and letrozole synergistically inhibited TE-induced cell proliferation. These results showed the potential of the I3C derivative CTet as a chemopreventive agent that interferes with aromatase activity.
Adapted from: M. De Santi and L. Galluzzi, “Inhibition of Testosterone Aromatization by the Indole-3-carbinol Derivative CTet in CYP19A1-overexpressing MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.”
Study Conclusion: Indole-3-Carbinol reduces aromatization of testosterone into estrogen.
Adapted from: J. Higdon, “Indole-3-Carbinol | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University,” 2005. [Online]. Available: https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/dietary-factors/phytochemicals/indole-3-carbinol.
Ingredient Summary: Indole-3-carbinol is a multifaceted hormone regulator: it has been shown to reduce estrogen synthesis, limit estrogen metabolic activation, and block estrogen signaling. These multiple mechanisms ensure that IC3 is a crucial component of any hormone rebalancing strategy. For added benefit, I3C has been shown to increase cellular antioxidant capacity and selectively kill prostate cancer cells. Since anabolic agents can increase prostate cancer risk , I3C is a wise choice for any post-cycle therapy.
Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol that has been detected in over a hundred plant species—especially enriched in grape skins and seeds—in addition to red wines and various other foods. Biologically, it is a phytoalexin that helps plants guard against bacterial and fungal assaults. As a natural food ingredient, research has revealed that resveratrol exerts an unusually powerful and sustained antioxidant potential.
Resveratrol exhibits a fascinating range of activities in humans. The efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of resveratrol have been extensively characterized in over 250 clinical trials, with an additional 30 trials ongoing. Critically, it demonstrates antitumor ability, and it is considered a viable candidate for the prevention and treatment of numerous malignancies. Resveratrol has anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective, anti-estrogenic, and neuroprotective functions:
- Strong antioxidant potential , 
- Inhibits aromatization of testosterone 
- Sustained anti-inflammatory properties 
- Improves cerebral blood flow and cognitive performance in humans 
Selected preclinical research findings
- Resveratrol is a natural aromatase inhibitor :
Estrogen plays a crucial role in the development of breast cancer, and the inhibition of estrogen synthesis has been an important target for the prevention and treatment of this disease. The rate-limiting reaction of the hormone biosynthesis is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19 enzyme or aromatase. It has been of genuine interest to uncover an aromatase-inhibitory compound from a dietary source. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound that can be isolated from grape peel. Because of its structural resemblance to estrogen, resveratrol's agonistic and antagonistic properties on estrogen receptor have been examined and demonstrated. In the present study, the effect of resveratrol on the expression and enzyme activity of aromatase was investigated. By assaying on MCF-7 cells stably transfected with CYP19 (MCF-7aro cells), resveratrol inhibited the aromatase activity with an IC50 value of 25μM. Kinetic analysis indicated that both competitive and noncompetitive inhibition might be involved. The administration of 10 nmol/l testosterone—a substrate of aromatase—produced a 50% increase in the MCF-7aro cell number. This cell proliferation specifically induced by testosterone was significantly reduced by 10μM resveratrol. In addition, 50μM resveratrol significantly reduced the CYP19-encoding mRNA abundance in SK-BR-3 cells. The transcriptional control of CYP19 gene is tissue specific, and promoter regions I.3 and II have previously been shown to be responsible for CYP19 expression in breast cancer cells. Luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that resveratrol could repress the transcriptional control dictated by the promoter regulation. The present study illustrates that pharmacological dosage of resveratrol inhibited aromatase at both the enzyme and mRNA levels.
Adapted from: Y. Wang, K. W. Lee, F. L. Chan, S. Chen, and L. K. Leung, “The Red Wine Polyphenol Resveratrol Displays Bilevel Inhibition on Aromatase in Breast Cancer Cells,” Toxicol. Sci., vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 71–77, Jul. 2006.
Selected clinical research findings
- Resveratrol improves cerebral blood flow and cognitive performance in healthy adults :
BACKGROUND: The many putative beneficial effects of the polyphenol resveratrol include an ability to bolster endogenous antioxidant defenses, modulate nitric oxide synthesis, and promote vasodilation, which thereby improves blood flow. Resveratrol may therefore modulate aspects of brain function in humans.
OBJECTIVE: The current study assessed the effects of oral resveratrol on cognitive performance and localized cerebral blood flow variables in healthy human adults.
DESIGN: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 22 healthy adults received placebo and 2 doses (250 and 500 mg) of trans-resveratrol in counterbalanced order on separate days. After a 45-min resting absorption period, the participants performed a selection of cognitive tasks that activate the frontal cortex for an additional 36 min. Cerebral blood flow and hemodynamics, as indexed by concentration changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, were assessed in the frontal cortex throughout the posttreatment period with the use of near-infrared spectroscopy. The presence of resveratrol and its conjugates in plasma was confirmed by HPLC after the same doses in a separate cohort (n = 9).
Mean (±SEM) changes in concentrations of total hemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin during a 45-min absorption period and a subsequent 36-min period of cognitive task performance after placebo or 250 or 500 mg trans-resveratrol. The study followed a crossover design (n = 22 per condition). Data are averaged across 5-min [absorption period; Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP)] or 4-min [serial subtraction (SS) tasks] epochs. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant treatment × epoch interaction (P < 0.05) for both total hemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. A priori planned comparisons of data from each resveratrol group with data from the placebo group for each epoch were carried out with t tests incorporating mean squares error from the ANOVA. *,**Significantly different from placebo: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01.
Adapted from: D. O. Kennedy et al., “Effects of resveratrol on cerebral blood flow variables and cognitive performance in humans: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover investigation,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 1590–1597, Jun. 2010
Study Conclusion: These results show that even single doses of orally administered resveratrol can modulate cerebral blood flow variables.
Ingredient Summary: Dozens of high-quality academic studies show that resveratrol offers powerful antioxidant potential, reduces aromatization of testosterone, maintains anti-inflammatory cellular redox, improves blood flow to the brain, and improves cognition (even in healthy adults). For these reasons, resveratrol is a uniquely beneficial and multipurpose addition to your post-cycle therapy, especially if you want to minimize the potentially deleterious effects that anabolic supplementation can exert on neurons with extended use .
Fenugreek has a long history as both a culinary and medicinal herb in the ancient world, and it continues to be used around the world today. The fenugreek plant contains an array of powerful compounds that are thought to be responsible for many of the plant's therapeutic properties. Fenugreek is also being studied for a myriad of uses in the pharmaceutical industry. For instance, it elicits a minor hypoglycemic effect, which may help with diabetes. Importantly it also contains a variety of flavonols, including quercetin and rutin, which confer antioxidant properties. Additionally, rutin is anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective, and has been shown to lower LDL (bad cholesterol). Exciting research involving Fenugreek is ongoing to further explore its benefits:
- Improving endogenous testosterone levels , 
- Exerting strong antioxidant effects –
- Fenugreek extract significantly improves symptoms of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) in otherwise healthy men :
Patients were instructed to take a placebo or 200 mg Fenugreek mixed extract capsule (TFGL) twice per day for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was the change from baseline in the Aging Males' Symptoms scale (AMS), as well as levels of serum total and free testosterone. Secondary efficacy measurements included changes from baseline in the number of 'yes' answers on the Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire, levels of serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride, all domain scores of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), perceived stress scale-10 (PSS-10), as well as changes in body composition.
The Fenugreek group (TFGL) exhibited a significant improvement in the AMS scores at 8 weeks, total testosterone at 8 weeks, and free testosterone at 4 and 8 weeks. The Fenugreek group also exhibited a significant improvement in total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglyceride, IIEF scores, and PSS-10 scores at 8 weeks.
Adapted from: H. J. Park, K. S. Lee, E. K. Lee, and N. C. Park, “Efficacy and Safety of a Mixed Extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed and Lespedeza cuneata in the Treatment of Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial,” World J. Mens. Health, vol. 36, no. 3, p. 230, Sep. 2018.
Study Conclusion: The mixed Fenugreek extract (TFGL) resulted in significant improvements in symptoms of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) as measured by the AMS, ADAM, PSS-10 scales, and testosterone levels.
Ingredient Summary: Fenugreek is comprised of a wide range of potent, natural phytochemicals with solid evidence of natural testosterone support, body composition maintenance, strength retention, and Aging Male Symptom reduction. Moreover, it has an excellent clinical safety profile and exceptional tolerability. As a bonus, it also works to help regulate blood sugar , .
Tongkat Ali, otherwise known as Long Jack, is a plant native to Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Indonesia. Its root has long been employed as a traditional remedy for the treatment of malaria, elevated blood pressure, fever, fatigue, lack of sexual desire, and erectile dysfunction. However, current academic research focuses on these indications:
- Increases free testosterone in men –
- Improves sexual function and fertility , –
- Improves stress hormone profiles 
- Improve lipolysis (fat-burning) and lean body mass in athletes –
- Tongkat Ali increases total and free testosterone in physically active males :
Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia; TA) is known to increase testosterone levels and alleviate aging males' symptoms. This study aimed at investigating TA as an ergogenic supplement for elderly people. Thirteen physically active male and 12 physically active female seniors (57-72 years) were supplemented with 400-mg TA extract daily for 5 weeks. Standard hematological parameters were taken. In addition, the concentrations of total and free testosterone, dihydroepiandrosterone, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1, and sex hormone-binding globulin were analyzed. As additional biochemical parameters, blood urea nitrogen and creatine kinase as parameters of kidney function and muscle damage, respectively, as well as the muscle strength by a simple handgrip test were determined. After treatment, hemoglobin, testosterone, and dihydroepiandrosterone concentrations, and the ratio of total testosterone/cortisol and muscle force remained significantly lower in female seniors than in male seniors. Hematocrit and erythrocyte count in male seniors increased slightly but were significantly higher than in female seniors. Treatment resulted in significant increases in total and free testosterone concentrations and muscular force in men and women. The increase in free testosterone in women is thought to be due to the significant decline in sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations. The study affirms the ergogenic benefit of TA through enhanced muscle strength.
Adapted from: R. R. Henkel et al., “Tongkat Ali as a Potential Herbal Supplement for Physically Active Male and Female Seniors-A Pilot Study,” Phyther. Res., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 544–550, Apr. 2014
Fig 1. Serum testosterone concentration in 76 late‐onset hypogonadism patients before and after treatment with 200‐mg standardised water‐soluble extract of Tongkat ali (Eurycoma longifolia) for 1 month. A highly significant increase in the free testosterone concentration was calculated by means of the Wilcoxon test (P < 0.0001).
Fig 2. Aging Males’ Symptoms (AMS) rating score in 76 late‐onset hypogonadism patients before and after treatment with 200‐mg standardised water‐soluble extract of Tongkat ali (Eurycoma longifolia) for 1 month. A highly significant decrease in the AMS score was calculated by means of the Wilcoxon test (P < 0.0001).
Adapted from: M. I. B. M. Tambi, M. K. Imran, and R. R. Henkel, “Standardised water-soluble extract of Eurycoma longifolia, Tongkat ali, as testosterone booster for managing men with late-onset hypogonadism?” Andrologia, vol. 44, pp. 226–230, May 2012.
Ingredient Summary: Tongkat Ali is a remarkable herbal supplement for physically active adults seeking normalcy after an anabolic phase. In addition to its ability to increases free testosterone and improve sexual function/fertility in men, it also works to balance stress hormone profiles and maximize fat burning. Tongkat Ali is especially important for post-cycle therapy in those who are concerned with maintaining a healthy libido and an active sex life.
Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), a succulent vine native to West Africa and Southeast Asia, has been used historically in traditional African and Ayurvedic medicine for more than a century. Although a variety of studies have examined other uses of CQ, its role in maintaining lean mass and reducing symptoms of metabolic syndrome has attracted interest in the developed world. The unique chemical constituents of CQ—novel flavonoids and indanes, in addition to phytosterols and keto-steroids—have shown promise as powerful and efficient antioxidants. These plant molecules also demonstrate lipase and amylase inhibition, thus providing a mechanism for excess fat loss via reduced oxidative stress and dietary fat metabolism. Research involving CQ is ongoing to further explore its benefits:
- Improving endogenous IGF-1 signaling 
- Inhibition of bone fracture healing and bone loss secondary to endogenous sex hormone deficiency –
- Reducing joint pain in athletes 
- Management of weight loss, oxidative stress, and cholesterol –
- Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects 
Selected clinical research findings
- Cissus quadrangularis reduces waist circumference and cholesterol :
The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. The participants were randomly divided into three equal groups (n = 24): placebo; CQ-only extract, and CQ-IG combination. The placebo (250 mg) or active formulations (150 mg CQ and 250 mg CQ-IG) were administered twice daily before meals with 8–10 oz. of water. Since the capsules were identical in shape, colour and appearance, neither the participants nor the researchers knew which treatment was administered. The CQ and IG were proprietary extracts standardized to 2.5% keto-steroids for CQ (CQR-300) and 7% albumins for IG (IGOB131). All testing materials were supplied by Gateway Health Alliances, Inc., Fairfield, California, USA.
Fig. 1. Waist circumference.
Fig. 2. Plasma cholesterol
Adapted from: J. E. Oben, J. L. Ngondi, C. N. Momo, G. A. Agbor, and C. Sobgui, “The use of a Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: a double-blind placebo-controlled study,” Lipids Health Dis., vol. 7, no. 1, p. 12, Mar. 2008Study Conclusion: CQ benefits both metabolic and physiological parameters in humans.
Ingredient Summary: Cissus quadrangularis provides multifaceted support to the specific needs of a post-cycle body. From improving your body’s own IGF-1 levels, managing oxidative stress and cholesterol, to improving bone health, CQ is uniquely able to help normalize a wide range of physiological systems. CQ is also particularly effective at reducing pain and inflammation resulting from joint dysfunction, which is obviously an unfortunate consequence of heavy lifting.
Milk thistle extracts have been used as traditional herbal remedies for thousands of years, and remain popular and part of evidence-based strategies to protect the liver against chemicals, toxins, and to ameliorate chronic liver disease. Intriguingly, more recent experimental and clinical data demonstrates that milk thistle also displays anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, and cardiovascular benefits. Milk thistle is taken by mouth most often for liver disorders, including liver damage caused by accidental chemical exposure, alcohol, and chemotherapy, as well as liver damage caused by Amanita mushroom poisoning, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic inflammatory liver disease, cirrhosis of the liver, and chronic hepatitis. Several trials have studied the effects of milk thistle for patients with liver diseases, cancer, hepatitis C, HIV, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Promising results have been reported regarding the protective effect of milk thistle in certain types of cancer, and ongoing trials will provide more evidence about this effect. In addition, new optimized doses and manufacturing standardization of this plant extract will further empower the forthcoming evidence about the efficacy of milk thistle in the management of liver diseases. Most importantly, milk thistle extracts are known to be safe and very well-tolerated, while adverse effects have been minimal . It is currently being investigated for the following benefits:
- Reducing urinary tract symptoms and prostate-specific antigen in men 
- Protection of liver following chemical or alcohol exposure –
- Milk thistle (silymarin) reduces chemical-induced liver fibrosis :
It has been well established that silymarin has hepatoprotective and anti-fibrotic effects, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. In recent years, the role of monocytes in liver fibrosis has been well demonstrated. Thus, in present study we aimed to investigate whether silymarin can relieve liver fibrosis by reducing monocyte infiltration. The mouse model of liver fibrosis was established by injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) chemical via intraperitoneal repeatedly. Mice in silymarin group received silymarin treatment by gavage. Silymarin significantly reduced liver inflammation and fibrosis of the mice induced by CCl4 injection, as revealed by liver histological and pathological analysis. Mice administrated by silymarin exhibited less infiltration of monocytes. But there was no difference on other tested leukocyte subsets between CCl4 group and silymarin group. Meanwhile, further study found that silymarin significantly reduced CCl4-induced increased expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), which was in line with the decreased numbers of intrahepatic Ly6Chi monocytes. In conclusion, our study showed that the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects of silymarin could be contributed to the prevention of immune cell infiltration into the injured livers, which will give us a better understanding on the cellular mechanism of hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effect for silymarin.
Adapted from: X.-A. Zhao et al., “Inhibitory effect of silymarin on CCl 4-induced liver fibrosis by reducing Ly 6 Chi monocytes infiltration.” 2017.
Study Conclusion: Milk thistle derived silymarin reduces liver fibrosis resulting from biochemical injury.
Ingredient Summary: The Milk thistle herb and its diverse phytochemical constituents are among the best natural liver-protecting agents studied academically. Moreover, numerous clinical trials have demonstrated its safety and tolerability for long-term use to help alleviate and prevent liver damage caused by alcohol use and anabolic supplementation. For this reason, Milk thistle is a mainstay of post-cycle therapy and has a legion of devotees.
N-acetyl L-Cysteine (NAC) has been used as an antioxidant precursor to glutathione (γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine) in the treatment of Tylenol overdose clinically for more than 30 years. However, as more is understood about the actions of NAC, the clinical applications have also broadened. The use of NAC in restoring glutathione levels is well established, and the latter serves as the primary, universal antioxidant produced by the human body. Glutathione neutralizes reactive oxygen and nitrogen species from the cell through both direct and indirect scavenging.
As the most abundant and mutifunctional antioxidant, glutathione is responsible for maintaining the overall redox balance in the cell. This occurs through both direct and indirect removal of reactive species through the formation and breakdown of isolated products. The resulting oxidized glutathione is then reduced by glutathione reductase to begin the cycle again. In addition to the effects on oxidative balance, alterations in cysteine levels have also been shown to modulate neuro-transmitter pathways, including glutamate and dopamine. Currently, the role of N-acetyl L-Cysteine in maintaining glutathione levels is being evaluated for the following indications:
- Liver protection following surgical-, chemical- or pharmaceutical-induced damage –
- Reduction of alcohol-seeking behavior and alcohol-induced liver damage –
- Improving outcomes in patients with Major Depressive Disorder –
- Decreasing the morbidity of lung disease 
- N-acetyl L-Cysteine reduces alcohol-seeking behavior and overall alcohol consumption :
*When an animal presses on the active lever, it triggers the associated light cue for 2 seconds and produces the delivery of 0.1 ml of 20% ethanol solution.
Adapted from: S. Lebourgeois, M. C. González-Marín, J. Jeanblanc, M. Naassila, and C. Vilpoux, “Effect of N -acetylcysteine on motivation, seeking and relapse to ethanol self-administration,” Addict. Biol., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 643–652, Mar. 2018
Study Conclusion:N‐acetyl L-Cysteine decreases the motivation to consume ethanol and limits reacquisition after abstinence.Ingredient Summary: In addition to being a powerful, highly-bioavailable antioxidant with impeccable safety for continual use, N‐acetyl L-Cysteine is relied upon by hospitals and clinics around the world for acute liver protection. Since anabolic supplements pose a hazard to your liver health, NAC is a crucial addition to your post-cycle therapy that you should not overlook. Moreover, given its ability to reduce alcohol craving and consumption—in addition to its expanding role in mental health maintenance—it can help you stay on track to avoid falling off the wagon after your months of hard work in the gym.
*The information herein is for educational and informational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Umbrella Supplements does not condone the improper use of anabolic supplements without physician supervision.
Shipping Conditions: Ambient temperature.
Storage: Cool, dark place.
 K. J. Auborn et al., “Indole-3-Carbinol Is a Negative Regulator of Estrogen,” J. Nutr., vol. 133, no. 7, pp. 2470S-2475S, Jul. 2003.
 I. Chen, S. Safe, and L. Bjeldanes, “Indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane as aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists and antagonists in T47D human breast cancer cells,” Biochem. Pharmacol., vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 1069–1076, Apr. 1996.
 J. J. Michnovicz, H. Adlercreutz, and H. L. Bradlow, “Changes in Levels of Urinary Estrogen Metabolites After Oral Indole-3-Carbinol Treatment in Humans,” JNCI J. Natl. Cancer Inst., vol. 89, no. 10, pp. 718–723, May 1997.
 J. Higdon, “Indole-3-Carbinol | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University,” 2005. [Online]. Available: https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/dietary-factors/phytochemicals/indole-3-carbinol. [Accessed: 08-Oct-2019].
 M. Nachshon-Kedmi, S. Yannai, A. Haj, and F. A. Fares, “Indole-3-carbinol and 3,3′-diindolylmethane induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells,” Food Chem. Toxicol., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 745–752, Jun. 2003.
 V. L. Maruthanila, J. Poornima, and S. Mirunalini, “Attenuation of Carcinogenesis and the Mechanism Underlying by the Influence of Indole-3-carbinol and Its Metabolite 3,3’-Diindolylmethane: A Therapeutic Marvel.,” Adv. Pharmacol. Sci., vol. 2014, p. 832161, 2014.
 M. B. Arnao, J. Sanchez-Bravo, and M. Acosta, “Indole-3-carbinol as a scavenger of free radicals.,” Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int., vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1125–34, Aug. 1996.
 M. De Santi and L. Galluzzi, “Inhibition of Testosterone Aromatization by the Indole-3-carbinol Derivative CTet in CYP19A1-overexpressing MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.” .
 M. C. Bosland, “Chapter 2: The Role of Steroid Hormones in Prostate Carcinogenesis,” JNCI Monogr., vol. 2000, no. 27, pp. 39–66, Jul. 2000.
 İ. Gülçin, “Antioxidant properties of resveratrol: A structure–activity insight,” Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 210–218, Jan. 2010.
 A. Carrizzo et al., “Antioxidant effects of resveratrol in cardiovascular, cerebral and metabolic diseases,” Food Chem. Toxicol., vol. 61, pp. 215–226, Nov. 2013.
 Y. Wang, K. W. Lee, F. L. Chan, S. Chen, and L. K. Leung, “The Red Wine Polyphenol Resveratrol Displays Bilevel Inhibition on Aromatase in Breast Cancer Cells,” Toxicol. Sci., vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 71–77, Jul. 2006.
 C. Alarcón de la Lastra and I. Villegas, “Resveratrol as an anti-inflammatory and anti-aging agent: Mechanisms and clinical implications,” Mol. Nutr. Food Res., vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 405–430, May 2005.
 D. O. Kennedy et al., “Effects of resveratrol on cerebral blood flow variables and cognitive performance in humans: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover investigation,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 1590–1597, Jun. 2010.
 M. Estrada, A. Varshney, and B. E. Ehrlich, “Elevated Testosterone Induces Apoptosis in Neuronal Cells,” J. Biol. Chem., vol. 281, no. 35, pp. 25492–25501, Sep. 2006.
 A. Rao, E. Steels, W. J. Inder, S. Abraham, and L. Vitetta, “Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract reduces age-related symptoms of androgen decrease, increases testosterone levels and improves sexual function in healthy aging males in a double-blind randomised clinical study,” Aging Male, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 134–142, Apr. 2016.
 H. J. Park, K. S. Lee, E. K. Lee, and N. C. Park, “Efficacy and Safety of a Mixed Extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed and Lespedeza cuneata in the Treatment of Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial,” World J. Mens. Health, vol. 36, no. 3, p. 230, Sep. 2018.
 S. Kaviarasan, G. H. Naik, R. Gangabhagirathi, C. V. Anuradha, and K. I. Priyadarsini, “In vitro studies on antiradical and antioxidant activities of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds,” Food Chem., vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 31–37, Jan. 2007.
 S. Akbari, N. H. Abdurahman, R. M. Yunus, O. R. Alara, and O. O. Abayomi, “Extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of fenugreek (Trigonella-Foenum Graecum) seed oil,” Mater. Sci. Energy Technol., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 349–355, Aug. 2019.
 P. Dixit, S. Ghaskadbi, H. Mohan, and T. P. A. Devasagayam, “Antioxidant properties of germinated fenugreek seeds,” Phyther. Res., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 977–983, Nov. 2005.
 R. A. Najdi, M. M. Hagras, F. O. Kamel, and R. M. Magadmi, “A randomized controlled clinical trial evaluating the effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) versus glibenclamide in patients with diabetes,” Afr. Health Sci., vol. 19, no. 1, p. 1594, Apr. 2019.
 A. Ghorbani, M. Zarvandi, and H. Rakhshandeh, “A randomized controlled trial of a herbal compound for improving metabolic parameters in diabetic patients with uncontrolled dyslipidemia,” Endocrine, Metab. Immune Disord. - Drug Targets, vol. 19, Feb. 2019.
 S. M. Talbott, J. A. Talbott, A. George, and M. Pugh, “Effect of Tongkat Ali on stress hormones and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects,” J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr., vol. 10, no. 1, p. 28, Dec. 2013.
 M. I. B. M. Tambi, M. K. Imran, and R. R. Henkel, “Standardised water-soluble extract of Eurycoma longifolia, Tongkat ali, as testosterone booster for managing men with late-onset hypogonadism?,” Andrologia, vol. 44, pp. 226–230, May 2012.
 R. R. Henkel et al., “Tongkat Ali as a Potential Herbal Supplement for Physically Active Male and Female Seniors-A Pilot Study,” Phyther. Res., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 544–550, Apr. 2014.
 S. B. Ismail, W. M. Z. Wan Mohammad, A. George, N. H. Nik Hussain, Z. M. Musthapa Kamal, and E. Liske, “Randomized Clinical Trial on the Use of PHYSTA Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia for the Improvement of Quality of Life and Sexual Well-Being in Men,” Evidence-Based Complement. Altern. Med., vol. 2012, pp. 1–10, Nov. 2012.
 H. H. ANG, H. S. CHEANG, and A. P. M. YUSOF, “Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) on the Initiation of Sexual Performance of Inexperienced Castrated Male Rats.,” Exp. Anim., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 35–38, 2000.
 M. I. B. M. Tambi and M. K. Imran, “Eurycoma longifolia Jack in managing idiopathic male infertility.,” Asian J. Androl., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 376–80, May 2010.
 P. J. Lim, C. S. Gan, T. K. Khong, S. H. Hamzah, and A. Yusof, “Effect of Eurycoma Longifolia Jack Extract on Lipolysis in Collegiate Athletes: Pilot study,” Springer, Singapore, 2017, pp. 97–100.
 “Joint Conference of BASEM and BASES,” Br. J. Sports Med., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 464–470, Oct. 2003.
 S. Hamzah, A. Y.-B. J. S. Med, and undefined 2003, “007 THE ERGOGENIC EFFECTS OF EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA JACK: A PILOT STUDY,” lostempireherbs.com.
 T. Khanijo and W. Jiraungkoorskul, “Review Ergogenic Effect of Long Jack, Eurycoma Longifolia.,” Pharmacogn. Rev., vol. 10, no. 20, pp. 139–142, 2016.
 S. Muthusami, I. Ramachandran, S. Krishnamoorthy, R. Govindan, and S. Narasimhan, “Cissus quadrangularis augments IGF system components in human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells.,” Growth Horm. IGF Res., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 343–8, Dec. 2011.
 A. N. Jadhav et al., “Ketosteroid Standardized Cissus quadrangularis L. Extract and its Anabolic Activity: Time to Look Beyond Ketosteroid?,” Pharmacogn. Mag., vol. 12, no. Suppl 2, pp. S213-7, May 2016.
 S. Rao Sirasanagandla, S. Ranganath Pai Karkala, B. K. Potu, and K. M. R. Bhat, “Beneficial Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on Osteopenia Associated with Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Male Wistar Rats.,” Adv. Pharmacol. Sci., vol. 2014, p. 483051, 2014.
 J. Banu, E. Varela, A. N. Bahadur, R. Soomro, N. Kazi, and G. Fernandes, “Inhibition of Bone Loss by Cissus quadrangularis in Mice: A Preliminary Report.,” J. Osteoporos., vol. 2012, p. 101206, 2012.
 R. J. Bloomer, T. M. Farney, C. G. McCarthy, and S.-R. Lee, “Cissus Quadrangularis Reduces Joint Pain in Exercise-Trained Men: A Pilot Study,” Phys. Sportsmed., vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 29–35, Sep. 2013.
 J. E. Oben, D. Enyegue, G. I. Fomekong, Y. B. Soukontoua, and G. A. Agbor, “The effect of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) and a Cissus formulation (CORE) on obesity and obesity-induced oxidative stress,” Lipids Health Dis., vol. 6, no. 1, p. 4, Feb. 2007.
 J. E. Oben, J. L. Ngondi, C. N. Momo, G. A. Agbor, and C. Sobgui, “The use of a Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: a double-blind placebo-controlled study,” Lipids Health Dis., vol. 7, no. 1, p. 12, Mar. 2008.
 J. Oben, D. Kuate, G. Agbor, C. Momo, and X. Talla, “The use of a Cissus quadrangularis formulation in the management of weight loss and metabolic syndrome,” Lipids Health Dis., vol. 5, no. 1, p. 24, Sep. 2006.
 A. Panthong, W. Supraditaporn, D. Kanjanapothi, T. Taesotikul, and V. Reutrakul, “Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and venotonic effects of Cissus quadrangularis Linn.,” J. Ethnopharmacol., vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 264–270, Mar. 2007.
 V. Soleimani, P. S. Delghandi, S. A. Moallem, and G. Karimi, “Safety and toxicity of silymarin, the major constituent of milk thistle extract: An updated review,” Phyther. Res., vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1627–1638, Jun. 2019.
 J. Vostalova, A. Vidlar, J. Ulrichova, J. Vrbkova, V. Simanek, and V. Student, “Use of selenium-silymarin mix reduces lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate specific antigen in men.,” Phytomedicine, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 75–81, Dec. 2013.
 A. B. Siegel and J. Stebbing, “Milk thistle: early seeds of potential.,” Lancet. Oncol., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 929–30, Sep. 2013.
 K. R. Ball and K. V Kowdley, “A Review of Silybum marianum (Milk Thistle) as a Treatment for Alcoholic Liver Disease,” J. Clin. Gastroenterol., vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 520–528, Jul. 2005.
 A. Rambaldi, B. Jacobs, G. Iaquinto, and C. Gluud, “Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases,” in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, A. Rambaldi, Ed. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005, p. CD003620.
 X.-A. Zhao et al., “Inhibitory effect of silymarin on CCl 4-induced liver fibrosis by reducing Ly 6 Chi monocytes infiltration.” 2017.
 J. Grendar et al., “Effect of N-acetylcysteine on liver recovery after resection: A randomized clinical trial,” J. Surg. Oncol., vol. 114, no. 4, pp. 446–450, Sep. 2016.
 K. H. Owens, N. J. Medlicott, M. Zacharias, I. M. Whyte, N. A. Buckley, and D. M. Reith, “Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling to describe the effects of paracetamol and N-acetylcysteine on the international normalized ratio,” Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol., vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 102–108, Jan. 2015.
 K. Heard et al., “A single-arm clinical trial of a 48-hour intravenous N-acetylcysteine protocol for treatment of acetaminophen poisoning,” Clin. Toxicol., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 512–518, Jun. 2014.
 A.-L. Wang et al., “A dual effect of N-acetylcysteine on acute ethanol-induced liver damage in mice,” Hepatol. Res., vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 199–206, Mar. 2006.
 K. C. Morley et al., “N-acetyl cysteine in the treatment of alcohol use disorder in patients with liver disease: Rationale for further research,” Expert Opin. Investig. Drugs, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 667–675, Aug. 2018.
 S. Lebourgeois, M. C. González-Marín, J. Jeanblanc, M. Naassila, and C. Vilpoux, “Effect of N -acetylcysteine on motivation, seeking and relapse to ethanol self-administration,” Addict. Biol., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 643–652, Mar. 2018.
 G. Morais-Silva, G. C. Alves, and M. T. Marin, “N -acetylcysteine treatment blocks the development of ethanol-induced behavioural sensitization and related ΔFosB alterations,” Neuropharmacology, vol. 110, no. Pt A, pp. 135–142, Nov. 2016.
 O. Dean, F. Giorlando, and M. Berk, “N-acetylcysteine in psychiatry: current therapeutic evidence and potential mechanisms of action.,” J. Psychiatry Neurosci., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 78–86, Mar. 2011.
 M. Berk, G. S. Malhi, L. J. Gray, and O. M. Dean, “The promise of N-acetylcysteine in neuropsychiatry,” Trends Pharmacol. Sci., vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 167–177, Mar. 2013.
 S. Dodd, O. Dean, D. L. Copolov, G. S. Malhi, and M. Berk, “N -acetylcysteine for antioxidant therapy: pharmacology and clinical utility,” Expert Opin. Biol. Ther., vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1955–1962, Dec. 2008.
 E. M. Grandjean, P. Berthet, R. Ruffmann, and P. Leuenberger, “Efficacy of oral long-term N-acetylcysteine in chronic bronchopulmonary disease: A meta-analysis of published double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials,” Clin. Ther., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 209–221, Feb. 2000.