What is Nicotinamide Mononucleotide? Finding the Road to Longevity
Are you interested in a variety of nootropics and nutraceuticals? Well, you’re in the right place. Have you heard of NMN?
What is Nicotinamide Mononucleotide you wonder? Well, it’s purported as an NAD+ booster, but it can do so much more.
In this article, we will cover everything you need to know about NMN. So that you can safely decide if you would like to try it for yourself to support anti-aging, natural energy levels, and recovery.
Whenever you’re ready to learn more about this miracle substance, keep reading.
What Is Nicotinamide Mononucleotide?
NMN, also known as Nicotinamide Mononucleotide is derived from nicotinamide and ribose. NMN is a niacin derivative, humans have enzymes that allow us to use NMN to produce nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. In mice, NMN enters through the small intestine in 10 mins after NAD+ conversion takes place.
Because NADH is a mitochondrion, sirtuin, and PARP cofactor, NMN has been studied as an anti-aging and neuroprotective agent. Dietary companies market NMN with these claims. Doses of up to 500 mg are shown to be safe.
Nicotinamide riboside kinase enzymes are critical to exogenous utilization of NMN and NR. Some studies suggest that when administered from without the body, NMN must first cover to NR to be re-phosphorylated into NMN.
The molecular structure between NR and NMN is quite similar. However, NMN has another phosphate group, making it bigger. Some researchers believe that NMN is too big to cross cellular membranes.
It must first break down into NR to enter the cells for biosynthesis. Both NMN and NR are vulnerable to degradation of the extracellular kind with the CD38 enzyme, which is inhibited by compounds like CD38-IN-78c.
Now that you know what is nicotinamide mononucleotide, let’s cover some of the other important aspects of this substance.
NMN From Food Sources
Because most cells cannot import NAD directly, they must produce it within. But NMN can enter the body quickly through the liver, fatty tissue, pancreas, and small intestine. Mice absorb NMN within minutes, and within a half-hour, NMN is converted and distributed as NAD.
Some NMN is present in anti-aging food, such as cucumbers, broccoli, cabbage, avocados, edamame, tomatoes. While NMN appears to be in trace amounts, it is too difficult to eat enough veggies to boost NAD levels effectively.
NMN & Anti-Aging
It is proposed that increases in NAD slow down natural aging and delay age-related disease. For instance, Harvard geneticist David Sinclair has patented a NAD booster under a company run by his former mentor. They now sell products that boost NAD levels.
Telomeres help measure the biological age of a living organism. They are long tails of DNA repeated code at the final touchpoint of a chromosome. Each time a chromosome duplicates, it loses some of the telomeres.
Thus, as the entity ages, the telomeres shorten. This leads to cell death at some point. NMN can lengthen the telomeres through its ability to boost NAD+ levels.
In mice, NMN raises the activity of sirtuin, which is directly related to the complex mechanism of anti-aging that is still relatively new. NMN increases SIRT1 gene activity specifically.
In organisms, sirtuins combat cellular aging, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. Low levels of sirtuins are linked to age-related diseases, whereas high sirtuins improve overall fertility.
NMN can slow the process of aging by activating sirtuins and lengthening telomeres (in theory). However, this has only been demonstrated in cellular and mouse studies at this point.
NMN supplementation in mice has also helped with age-related diabetes. After one dose, mice had better secretions of insulin in response to glucose.
NMN & Metabolism
In mouse studies, supplemented NMN improved various health markets, such as energy metabolism, fat profile, weight gain, eyesight, physical activity. Fortunately, this study was a long one.
Typically, lab mice only live for about 2 years. In this study, they were examined for an entire year. At high doses of NMN, mice lost almost a quarter of their weight with no additional exercise.
Younger mice did not find great benefit in NMN supplementation. Whereas, older mice restored some of their younger qualities. Mice consuming NMN for half of their lifespan have better eyesight, fat profile, lower weight, and improved energy metabolism.
In other studies, NMN improves the function of the kidneys and removes kidney damage. The effects are most likely due to the activation of anti-inflammatory and anti-aging pathways.
NMN & the Heart, Blood Flow Diseases
In older mice, NMN restored the flexibility of capillary walls and reverse the damage on blood vessels caused by aging. The mice had seen significant capillary recovery and blood flow increases that other mice did not see without NMN.
As a matter of fact, new blood vessels have grown in the mice muscles. After the trial, their endurance and the vascular system were quite similar to those of young mice.
In a more recent study, older mice that received NMN had better blood flow to the brain. Given that blood flow is impaired by strokes, hypertension, and Alzheimer’s, this result is great for supporting the use-case of NMN on specific diseases.
For instance, in a study of a genetic heart disease (Friedreich Ataxia) that occurs during childhood. A high dose supplementation of NMN for six weeks improved heart function and heart muscle strength when compared against controls.
In mice, NMN improves the flow of blood to the brain, and muscle by preparing the growth of new capillaries while repairing existing ones. In Alzheimer’s, NAD levels are naturally lower.
In two studies of mice with Alzheimer’s, NMN improved memory, decreased neuroinflammation, enhanced motor control, and learning. SIRT3 activity also increased, the loss of which is related to tissue degeneration in the brain.
NMN also decreased plaque levels of β-amyloid. NMN can cross the blood-brain barrier, hence why it has such great benefits.
Regardless of NMN claims and the outstanding hype for anti-aging agents, current research is limited to animal studies. NMN has not been evaluated by the FDA, but it is actively sold on the market.
Several future studies will determine the true safety of NMN in humans. The research will focus on NMN course in the blood, as well as effects on individuals with BMI, high glucose, and blood triglycerides.
However, there have already been long-term animal studies, where the dosage was much higher than advertised for humans. There were no nicotinamide side effects present or any signs of toxicity.
NMN has very few unfavorable effects than any other NAD precursor. For instance, even vitamin B3 (niacin) causes a multitude of side effects, including a niacin flush. The safety of NMN is unknown in humans. According to animal research, it will not cause any adverse effects.
Because NMN is not FDA-approved, there are no official guidelines for dosing. Supplement manufacturers and users have developed their own guidelines based on anecdotal trial and error. If you think NMN might be useful for you, but you want to avoid interactions with drugs or health conditions, speak to your doctor.
In mouse studies, NMN was added to their water or fed to them via a tube at doses of hundreds mg per kg of their weight easy day. This dosage is impractical for humans, hence a corresponding dose would easily be 2 grams per day for an adult of 60 kg.
Doses in human products usually remain in a couple of hundred mg each day. For instance, in a study with women, the dosage for the trial was 125 mg 2 times a day for 8 weeks.
In any case, the dosage is highly variable for each individual person as well. Some individuals do not feel the accumulative effects even at “accepted” doses, and they often see great benefit from upping their dosage.
Reputable Quality NMN for You
Now that you have found out what is nicotinamide mononucleotide, you are that much closer to deciding if you would like to try it for yourself. In any case, there’s no need to rush when thinking about these kinds of things.
In the world of nootropics, medicine, and health, knowledge is king. The more you know, the better you’re off. If you’re interested in purchasing high-quality NMN from a reputable and trusted brand with certificates of analysis, get in touch with us and we will happily set you up with affordable NMN.
If for any reason you still have unanswered questions, don’t hesitate to reach out. We would love to help you better understand how you can improve your overall quality of life with the help of various substances.